Standard 4.1

DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.

Performance indicators:

a. Construct scientific explanations that use the structures and mechanisms of DNA and RNA to support the claim that DNA and, in some cases, that RNA are the primary sources of heritable information. [SP 6.5]
b. Justify the selection of data from historical investigations that support the claim that DNA is the source of heritable information. [SP 4.1]
c. Describe representations and models that illustrate how genetic information is copied for transmission between generations. [SP 1.2]
d. Describe representations and models illustrating how genetic information is translated into polypeptides. [SP 1.2]
e. Justify the claim that humans can manipulate heritable information by identifying at least two commonly used technologies. [SP 6.4]
f. Predict how a change in a specific DNA or RNA sequence can result in changes in gene expression. [SP 6.4]

Class Activities:

Transcription POGIL

Can not be legally posted in public webspace.

Translation POGIL

Can not be legally posted in public webspace.

Cloning pGLO Simulation

From Kim Foglia.


Standard 4.2

Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

Performance indicators:

a. Predict how a change in genotype, when expressed as a phenotype, provides a variation that can be subject to natural selection. [SP 6.4, 7.2]
b. Create a visual representation to illustrate how changes in a DNA nucleotide sequence can result in a change in the polypeptide produced. [SP 1.1]
c. Explain the connection between genetic variations in organisms and phenotypic variations. [SP 7.2]

Class Activities:

The Belgian Blue Mound of Beef

From a currently unknown author. If you know the author of this document, please let me know so that he/she can be credited.

"Molecular Genetics of Color Mutations in Rock Pocket Mice"

From HHMI Biointeractive

Mutations POGIL

Can not be legally posted in public webspace.


Standard 4.3

Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.

Performance indicators:

a. Construct an explanation of how viruses introduce genetic variation in host organisms. [SP 6.2]
b. Use representations and appropriate models to describe how viral replication introduces genetic variation in the viral population. [SP 1.4]

Class Activities:

none currently.



Standard 4.4

In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.

Performance indicators:

a. Make predictions about natural phenomena occurring during the cell cycle. [SP 6.4]
b. Describe the events that occur in the cell cycle. [SP 1.2]
c. Construct an explanation, using visual representations or narratives, as to how DNA in chromosomes is transmitted to the next generation via mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization. [SP 6.2]
d. Represent the connection between meiosis and increased genetic diversity necessary for evolution. [SP 7.1]
e. Evaluate evidence provided by data sets to support the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another generation through mitosis, or meiosis followed by fertilization. [SP 5.3]

Class Activities:

Cell Cycle Regulation POGIL

Can not legally be posted in public webspace.


Standard 4.5

The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.

Performance indicators:

a. Construct a representation that connects the process of meiosis to the passage of traits from parent to offspring. [SP 1.1, 7.2]
b. Pose questions about ethical, social or medical issues surrounding human genetic disorders. [SP 3.1]
c. Apply mathematical routines to determine Mendelian patterns of inheritance provided by data sets. [SP 2.2]

Class Activities:

Mendelian Problem Set 1: Basic


Statistics of Inheritance POGIL

Can not legally be posted in public webspace.

Using Genetic Crosses to Analyze A Stickleback Trait

Activity from HHMI Biointeractive.


Standard 4.6

The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

Performance indicators:

a. Explain deviations from Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits. [SP 6.5]
b. Explain how the inheritance patterns of many traits cannot be accounted for by Mendelian genetics. [SP 6.3]
c. Describe representations of an appropriate example of inheritance patterns that cannot be explained by Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits. [SP 1.2]

Class Activities:

Mendelian Problem Set 2: Extended



Standard 4.7

Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

Performance indicators:

a. Compare and contrast processes by which genetic variation is produced and maintained in organisms from multiple domains. [SP 7.2]
b. Construct an explanation of the multiple processes that increase variation within a population. [SP 6.2]

Class Activities:

none currently.



Standard 4.8

Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

Performance indicators:

a. Describe the connection between the regulation of gene expression and observed differences between different kinds of organisms. [SP 7.1]
b. Describe the connection between the regulation of gene expression and observed differences between individuals in a population. [SP 7.1]
c. Explain how the regulation of gene expression is essential for the processes and structures that support efficient cell function. [SP 6.2]
d. Use representations to describe how gene regulation influences cell products and function. [SP 1.4]

Class Activities:

Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes POGIL

Can not be legally posted in public webspace.

"Modeling the Regulatory Switches of the PITX1 Gene in Stickleback Fish"

Activity from HHMI Biointeractive.


Standard 4.9

A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

Performance indicators:

a. Explain how signal pathways mediate gene expression, including how this process can affect protein production. [SP 6.2]
b. Use representations to describe mechanisms of the regulation of gene expression. [SP 1.4]

Class Activities:

none currently.



Standard 4.10

Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

Performance indicators:

a. Construct explanations of the influence of environmental factors on the phenotype of an organism. [SP 6.2]
b. Predict the effects of a change in an environmental factor on the genotypic expression of phenotype. [SP 6.4]

Class Activities:

Lenski //E.coli// Citrate evolution article reading.

Adapted from an article by Carl Zimmer.